In the first part of work the characteristic of grain efirnomaslichny crops is given: coriander, fennel and fennel. The features connected with cultivation, storage and processing of these cultures as soil climatic conditions influence productivity and, the main thing, quality of essential oil are described. It is possible to learn from this section, in what branches of a national economy directly grain efirnomaslichny raw materials and production made from it is used.
Early the cleaned coriander contains more essential oil, nevertheless it is not necessary to hurry with its cleaning as at early stages of development of fruits oil contains many aldehydes which reduce its quality. The optimum term of cleaning comes when the majority of umbrellas on a plant have fruits in a stage of wax ripeness.
In the presence of herbicides it is not expediently to carry out interrow processings. An exception of interrow processings (against use of herbicide from system of care of wide-row crops of a coriander does not reduce a crop.
Composition of essential oil in various phases of development of plants the changeable. In umbrellas during the vegetative period collects and, in leaves there is the return process, namely the hydrocarbons (, camphene, pinene) which are characterized by low specific weight collect. These changes happen to a phase of a dairy maturity of fruits then synthesis of essential oils comes to an end.
The best place of fennel in a crop rotation - after winter grain. However good harvests are received, placing it after the fertilized propashny cultures or after the bean. Not excessively humidified chernozems and sand-loamy soils are necessary for its cultivation well cultivated, fertile, rich with lime, but.
Further with raw materials the following operations are made: loading in elevators and other warehouses of long storage. In elevators the raw materials of a certain qualitative category move. The unloaded raw materials have to pass through protective lattices from a six-millimetric wire with openings 4040 mm, for detention of too large impurity. The raw materials are loaded into certain silos according to its quality. In each row there are two blank silos that gives the chance of pumping of raw materials in case of self-warming.
Annual plant of family of the umbrella. 1 - 1,5 meter high with a single branchy stalk. Leaves next, repeatedly rassechenny on linearly - threadlike segments. Small yellow flowers are collected in difficult umbrellas. Fruits small, brown dvusemyanka. Fennel in July - August blossoms. Fruits ripen in August - September.
Maturing of seeds on a plant happens not at the same time, and the ripened seeds differ in a strong osypayemost on a root. Therefore it is recommended to begin harvesting at a pobureniye of 40 - 60% of all umbrellas on a plant.
Green plants of fennel contain proteins, fat oil, cellulose and a number of biologically active agents: vitamins C (135 - 183 mg of %), B1, B2, P, carotene, flavonoids (,, ). In fennel fruits to 22% of fat oil, 15% of proteins.
That is especially important, the coriander of winter crops forms fruits on orders of umbrellas to the fifth order inclusive whereas at spring crops the plodoobrazovaniye interrupts on the second order of umbrellas;
The best predecessors are winter on pure couples, early propashny cultures, leguminous, corn on a silo. The good predecessor is sugar beet. It is impossible to sow a coriander after sunflower, millet, a buckwheat.
Development of vegetative and generative bodies in a coriander happens at the same time therefore the period beginning with a steblevaniye and before mass blossoming is characterized by high absorptivity of moisture and nutrients from the soil.