Thus, the classical biology (as well as classical physics and astronomy) in the methodological installations proceeded mainly from empirical justification of knowledge (the only substantial basis of knowledge sensual experience in a type of supervision admitted). Experiment in classical biology was not considered as an important method of empirical knowledge of organic objects yet. The classical biology is a biology mainly observant. Introduction of a method of experiment in primary branches of biology, including in the theory of evolution, – a merit of the XX century. The fact of violation of a real picture of object in the course of microscopic research was realized, but thus biologists proceeded from such representation that the changes of a picture of object brought during preparation for supervision and the supervision can either be neglected, or to make on them the amendment and by that to bring them to naught. Methodological installations of classical biology allowed the following relations between knowledge and object of knowledge:
VARIABILITY - a variety of signs and properties at individuals and groups of individuals of any degree of relationship. It is inherent in all live organisms. Distinguish Variability: inheritances. and not inheritances.; individual and group, qualities. and quantities., directed and not directed. Inheritances. Variability is caused by emergence of mutations, not inheritances. - influence of factors of extra highway of the environment. The phenomena of heredity and variability are the cornerstone of evolution.
Contrary to old views for a comprehensive role of protein as the life basis, these opening were shown that the molecule of nucleinic acids are the cornerstone of continuity of life. Under their influence in each cage specific proteins are formed. The operating device of a cage is assembled in its kernel, is more exact - in chromosomes, from linear sets of genes. Each gene which is elementary unit of heredity at the same time presents itself a difficult microcosm in the form of the chemical structure peculiar to a certain piece of a molecule of DNA.