The fruit intended for conservation has to be the healthy, intact wreckers, correspond to a technological maturity which differs for different fruit and is more whole than processing. For compotes fruits have to have the corresponding coloring and taste, dense pulp which does not boil soft. For production of fruit juice and the condensed products it is possible to use also fruits with visible defects and deformations, mature or overripe. Degree of a maturity is estimated on the one hand subjectively on organic properties of fruit (taste, a smell, coloring, a consistence), on the other hand objectively - laboratory researches. As the main and elementary analysis, is required to take direct measurement the refractometer of amount of solid in fruit juice (Rf %) that gives the content of the dissolved substances in water, mainly sugar, and defines credits of some acids in terms of lemon acid. In usual house practice of conservation are guided by instructions in recipes which give usually amounts of sugar and acid in compote. Fruit processes usually fresh, as soon as possible after cleaning. If it is necessary to store them some time, they should be cleaned in dry, the cool and shaded place is better, it is best of all in the refrigerator.
The first phase of processing of fruit and vegetables is the sink which deletes from fruits dust, clay, sand and other sewage. Thereby strongly the number a microorganism decreases. At a sink it is necessary to remove finally, first of all, the dried-up fabrics in which there could be disputes of microorganisms and after sterilization in addition to promote damage of ready canned food. If small extent of pollution of fruits, they can be wetted and rinsed or washed up slightly under a shower from pure drinking water. The raw materials sink, mainly by the sizes comes to the end with sorting according to quality.
Flavoring feelings happen simple (sour, sweet, salty, it is bitter also difficult, received at an oprobyvaniye of the majority of products. The minimum quantity of substance in solution, necessary for excitement of flavoring feelings, is called as a feeling threshold.
These properties are shown at action on foodstuff of thermal energy. The knowledge of heatphysical characteristics is necessary for ensuring correctness of course of processes of cooking, pastries, sterilization, pasteurization, freezing, defrosting and storage of products.
The vegetables intended for conservation have to be healthy, whenever possible fresh, mostly well ripened. Only peas, haricot and cucumbers collect unripe, in an optimum technological maturity.
Heat conductivity coefficient - quantity of thermal energy which proceeds for a unit of time through 1 m 52 0 surfaces of a product on thickness of 1 m at a difference of temperatures of 1 degree. Water and products with big moisture content differ in high heat conductivity, are capable to heat up and be cooled quickly; fat-containing, porous and loose products possess low heat conductivity that can cause their damage.
Nature (volume or bulk the mass of a product is defined as the relation of its weight to the volume occupied by it together with a time and emptiness, it is expressed in kg/m 53 Volume weight it is necessary to consider at determination of capacity of container, warehouse, vehicles.
Temperature of hardening has to be considered when cooling, freezing and storage of products. Storage at a temperature below freezing of products has an adverse effect on their quality (for milk, drink.
From all these difficult processes for our attention it is possible to allocate simple and rather narrow group of at whom there are vegetable products which make food of people. These products, of course, participate in above the specified circulation, submitting to natural processes of synthesis and disintegration.
Relaxation - property of products firmly - liquid structure, the characterizing time of transition of elastic deformations in plastic at constant loading. This property is of great importance in transit of bread and bakery products, fruits, vegetables, confectionery goods.
Stickiness (adhesion) - ability of products to show in various measure of force of interaction with other product or a surface of container, equipment. Properties of stickiness dough, an iris, cheese, boiled sausage, butter, a grain crumb which when cutting stick to a knife surface possess, crumble or break.